Category Archives: Auntie B

Spring and Summer 2020 – Auntie Bee answers some questions

Question 4:  American websites and blogs speak of storing full supers in the barn over winter, well I don’t have a barn and I don’t have sufficient freezer space either!  So what is your recommended best practise for storing supers with frames of comb over the winter:  timing, location, pest treatment, repeat treatment, what if they have stores of honey, nectar, pollen in the comb etc and how long can they be stored like this ?

Answer from Auntie Bee: Firstly, regarding storing supers with honey residue (wet supers) or supers with honey still in them, I would not recommend this as the honey will take up moisture, its hygroscopic, and will then ferment and/or go mouldy.

I number all my supers as they go on the hives and then after extraction put them back on the same hive above the crown board.  The bees will quickly clean them out and take the honey down into the brood box, about 48h is enough time.

Before Certan was introduced, we used PDB crystals ( paradichlorobenzene for anyone interested) a common moth killer which was banned as it was shown to cause cancer (carcinogenic).  It may be that moth killers currently available (Mothballs, Lakeland products etc) may also work but I would have no idea regarding dose or effectiveness.  If you were to give these a go you would certainly need to air the supers before reusing them next year as these products are insecticides and would not discriminate between moths and bees.  They are however volatile and should evaporate very quickly.

Another suggestion is to use an insect zapping lamp.  These work quite well and I use one in my bee house when I’m working in my shed in the autumn when I am troubled by wasps.  The insects, bees, wasps, moths, everything are attracted to the UV light and then are humanely killed when they get close. These can be bought for around £25 from Amazon.  Its worth noting that wax moth lay eggs within the seams in the woodwork of frames and boxes so its possible there are larvae lurking there already in which case the lamp would not be effective.

The only sure way to rid the boxes of wax moth is to use Acetic Acid vapour.  There is a nice leaflet on the NBU website about fumigating comb (BeeBase, http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/index.cfm?pageid=167) so I’m not going to describe it here.  It will kill all stages of wax moth and if a stack of supers is sealed with tape with a solid board underneath and a properly fitting roof on top they will remain moth and mouse free until spring.  This treatment also kills Nosema spores, EFB and AFB spores.

Acetic acid is available from Thornes – collection only, £18.80 for 1 litre, and from Bee Equipment Ltd at Bridge although I note today 19th August they are out of stock.  One litre will treat a fair number of boxes and should tide most of us all over until Certan is available again.

Just one last note, wax moth are much more likely to be attracted to brood comb than to super frames so if you are overwintering drawn brood comb, a precious commodity, I would recommend storing those in a freezer if at all possible.

Best wishes

Auntie Bee

 

Question 3:  So I missed my weekly inspection by one day and yup, my biggest hive decided to swam. However, thanks to the fabulous teachers I have had I recaptured it. I pretended I had done an artificial swarm and put the new hive with some drawn and some new combs for them to sort out back to the location where they had come from having shifted the old hive to a few feet away.

So now I have a lot of new bees in a b box and no supers on them although there were two on the old hive. One q cell in old hive. All good there. Interestingly no classic swarm cell clusters, just two magnificent q cells in centre of a frame.

Questions –

  • Should I move supers from old to new hive? I think probably yes but pls confirm.
  • Should I feed new hive? I think probably no especially if I move supers over with some food present.
  • Any other useful pointers?

Answer from Auntie Bee: Well done, you’ve made the best of the situation and got it all right. If it was me I would put a feeder on the ‘swarm’ hive to help them draw out the remaining foundation and leave the brood hive as it is. As always there are many alternatives which would all work, but I think by doing that you will still have your honey crop and a reliable split on mostly newly drawn comb.

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Question 2:  I’m pretty sure one of my hives (luckily quite physically remote from the others) has got cbpv. The bees are very jittery on the comb although I haven’t seen any black greasy looking ones yet. I’ll have another look next week and may consider requeening as I know this can help. I know the virus can develop quite quickly so I appreciate I won’t have the luxury of taking a “wait and see” approach.

My question (which I can’t seem to find anything about online) is how long this virus can survive on equipment. ie. should the worst happen and the colony collapses, would the frames be safe and useable next year. I know typically viruses are quite short lived and can only survive for days at most outside the host but I’d feel much happier seeing something to back up my assumed position. Have you come across anything on this in your studies?

Answer from Auntie Bee: I had an outbreak of CBPV in one apiary a few years ago.  The first thing I noticed was piles of dead bees at the entrance of every hive (6).  At the time I suspected spray damage as well as disease and phoned the bee inspector to find out how to proceed.  Looking at the bees I did see some bald black bees on the top bars, in some of the hives, but waited to see what Kay Wreford would say.  Kay came about 10 days later, she was busy as CBPV is not notifiable so my call was low priority.  By the time she came the bees had recovered and were bringing in honey with no symptoms of the virus, the dead bees in the grass under the entrance remained.

There was no clear cut answer for me, Kay recommended I clear up the bees and disinfect the soil which I did although as you say the virus would not persist for very long outside of a living cell or organism.  She did say that had this been spray damage – the bees are in mixed orchards – there would have been piles of dead bees inside the hive as well as at the entrance so this was not the case.

So, unless your bees are particularly susceptible I think they should recover and I would just clean your hives as you normally would, by blow torching the boxes when empty.  If you are recycling old frames I would boil these in soda.

Bees always do better and look better on new comb so I change my comb in the Autumn by doing a Baillie comb change when I feed and the empty drawn supers go back to the shed where I sterilise them with acetic acid vapour – see BeeBase guide for exact details.- before storing them for the winter.  You could requeen but I don’t know anywhere where you can buy a CBPV resistant queen, I don’t think such a thing exists so personally I wouldn’t bother.

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Question 1: “I’ve put a new super on my hive, the first one, but the bees don’t seem to want to go up there. It’s been on a week and they’re ignoring it, despite being on eight brood frames. What should I do to make them go up?”

Answer from Auntie Bee: This is always difficult when you are a new beekeeper with equipment bees haven’t been in before.  I have two suggestions that might work.

 1.  Try putting a feeder on with weak sugar syrup.  If they draw out the frames under the feeder keep moving frames outwards until all are drawn.  A small feeder, little and often is recommended allowing the feeder to empty before refilling it.  Remove feeder before they start storing the syrup unless you intend to leave it for winter feed.

2.  Try putting the super underneath the brood box,  that way the bees will have to walk over the foundation and will leave pheromones which may encourage them to draw it out.  I would say to begin with leave out the queen excluder as this will knock pollen of the foragers legs if left in place.  As soon as they have drawn a couple of frames put the super back over the queen excluder and move frames around until all are drawn.

I think my preferred option would be 1 but I use large brood boxes that are very heavy for me to lift.

Good luck

Auntie Bee 🐝

Auntie Bee advises on uniting colonies, and then treating for varroa

Dear Auntie B and Uncle Drone

I have two colonies that I want to unite at the moment. Both need the late summer varroa treatment. How soon after uniting them is it safe to start treating them with Apiguard? I wouldn’t want the smell of the treatment to disrupt the chosen queen’s hold over her newly extended colony.

Auntie Bee answers:

Now is an ideal time to unite colonies and it is essential to have strong colonies going into winter.  As colonies have their own unique odour they will fight unless united slowly with time to get used to each other.  There are a number of methods for uniting colonies but the newspaper method is easy and reliable.

Firstly a few tips about uniting. If you have two colonies to unite – your records should tell you which has the better/younger queen and the other queen should be culled.  Don’t unite and leave both queens to fight it out on the principle of survival of the fittest, the victorious queen may well be damaged in the punch up and then you will have no queen for the following season.

How to unite, This is best done late afternoon when foragers have returned to the hive.

Remove supers from both colonies and place a sheet of newspaper over the brood box in the position that the final colony will occupy.  Secure this with a queen excluder and make a few small holes in the paper to allow the odour of both colonies to permeate.  Place the brood box from the second colony on top and close the hive.  If you want to put back a super with stores a further queen excluder and newspaper sheet are required.

Most text books say it is preferable to unite with the queen in the bottom brood box but I think this is not important.  As you have a queen excluder in between the brood boxes you will know where she is and you can reverse or amalgamate the boxes later on.  Don’t over winter with the queen excluder in place though, if you chose to leave the bees on a double brood.

And the answer to the question. After a week, inspect the colony and if a good proportion of the newspaper is gone and the bees are moving freely between the boxes, I would tidy away any remaining paper and check that the queen is laying.  You will  need to see eggs or very young larvae to ensure that she is laying well.  Then reverse the boxes if necessary so the queen is in the bottom box or amalgamate frames into one box if colonies were both small to start with.  I would then leave everything for a further week before doing the varroa treatment.  Bees are susceptible to stress and I like to do only one manipulation at a time and give them time to recover in between.

Final noteVarroa treatment should be done before feeding as most treatments are temperature dependent.

Good beekeeping

Auntie B

Winter arrives…some advice from Uncle Drone

Dear Auntie Bee and Uncle Drone

It’s got suddenly quite cold over this 10 days and I’m concerned about how my bees may be coping in early winter. Do you have any recommendations for this time of year?

Uncle Drone replies:

Hi concerned beekeeper.  By now your bees should have been well fed in October followed by a Varroa treatment and protected from the woodpeckers in November.  Assuming that these preparations went ok, all that can be done now is to watch and check the hive security for a while and keep hefting.
Watch to see if they are finding and taking in pollen, how many are flying, what temperatures they are flying at, look in the entrance to see if it is blocked by dead bees, if there are dead bees out front what age are they?
The thing here is that the bees should be just hanging in a state of quiescence and not leaving the hive except to excrete or find nectar and pollen.
If a hive goes light give it fondant, not excessive amounts, but they can take 3-500g in a week if they need it.  My preference is to give them some anyway as an Xmas present following a Varroa treatment which should be timed to around Xmas or New Year following a few days of cold.
Enjoy Xmas and have a glass of mead to toast the bees.
Uncle Drone

Spring feeding

A concerned beekeeper asks:
Dear Auntie Bee and Uncle Drone

Is it a good idea to give my bees some syrup and/or pollen patties at this time of year, to help the queen start laying and the colony to build up after a rather cold and miserable March? I don’t want to encourage too much growth but it has been really chilly for them so far.

Uncle Drone answers:

Yes, now we are into April the bees should be bringing in pollen and this stimulates brood rearing.  If they are not then you should watch carefully over a period of time in case they have not found a good source of pollen yet.  Pollen is the protein that bees need to produce the brood food needed for the developing larva and the queen so supplementing this can help but is not always necessary if the weather is adequate to provide several hours foraging per day.

The extra syrup and/or fondant can be essential if their stocks are low and the bees get confined to the hive by low temperatures and wet conditions, either way it will not hurt to add a little extra and it will be converted into more bees at this time of year rather than stored.

A down side to adding pollen patties and syrup/fondant is that they will stimulate the colony and in a months time or before the bees can be thinking of swarming, so you need to be prepared for this and avoid letting them get too cramped by keeping to weekly inspections/ checks and adding space as necessary.

Keeping the winter stores going – advice from Uncle Drone

‘Worried of Whitstable’ asks:

Dear Auntie Bee and Uncle Drone

My bees are still flying in all this mild weather and I’m worried that they’re using up their winter stores really fast at the moment. Should I give them some fondant now or is it better to let them use their own stores first and put fondant on later?

Uncle Drone replies:

Well this point is of concern to all of us.  It is too late in the season for syrup and it is wise to keep as much of their own stores intact as they act as heat sinks/insulation as well as food stores

So, fondant is the only option but it attracts moisture so must be given in small quantities (say 300-400 g) and wrapped in cling film (or flattened out in a ziplock freezer bag), cutting/slicing into it with a knife where it is to be placed over a hole in the crown board.

Once given/started it should be continued on demand till spring.

Auntie Bee and Uncle Drone answer a query about suddenly finding many bees dead in front of a hive

Hi Auntie Bee and Uncle Drone,
I found a heap (hundreds rather than thousands) of dead and dying bees in front of a hive this morning. A couple of days ago a lot of yellow lumps of pollen had appeared under the hive. Have had a closer look and most of the dead have furry bodies, probosces sticking out, folded legs and wings at more or less right angle to bodies. Recent Varroa count negligible. The hive seems to be thriving otherwise. Could be garden pesticide?

From Uncle Drone: Any situation where there is a sudden increase in dead bees in front of the hive should ring alarm bells as the most probable cause is a pesticide or herbicide being used wrongly and not according to the licensed method. Either a plant has been sprayed with a pesticide to kill greenfly or maybe some grass that has clover in it has been sprayed with a herbicide to remove weeds other than grass such as clover and dandelions.

From Auntie Bee: I agree with Uncle Drone this does sound like poisoning.  Were all hives in the apiary affected or just one?
The only other situation I have encountered where there are many dead bees at the entrance is when a colony of mine was affected by Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus but this is easily recognised as there will be adult bees inside the hive showing symptoms, bald and shiny, trembling and walking aimlessly, often on the top bars.  I killed the queen in my infected hive and united with a newly mated queen in a nuc.  Within three weeks the hive had recovered, although all the old bees were then found dead in front of the hive.
The only thing to add is to make sure you sterilise your hive tool between hives ( which you should be doing anyway) to ensure that if there is disease present it doesn’t spread.

Uncle Drone’s reminder list for late winter activities

A beekeeper asks:
Uncle Drone, I do not seem to be doing anything much with the bees this month – have I been missing something I ought to do?
Uncle Drone answers:
Well, this month and the next two are critical to the survival of the bees this winter.  They will be trying to encourage the Queen to lay a few more eggs to replace those workers dying of old age.  This uses food which is not being replaced by the flying bees, so depending on the type of bee you have they could use their stores up quickly.
Your task during this month and the next two is to keep track of the food usage of the hives, not by opening them as this could kill them, but by hefting regularly (check the weight) and watching the flying bees on good days.  If the weight drops significantly (you should have notes of previous checks on your hive notes) then add fondant packs and monitor how quickly they take this down.  By March it should be warm enough to add a warm syrup but do not do this unless the daytime temperatures are reaching 12-15C.
A second and equally important area to keep monitoring is the hive security.  Damage can be caused by woodpeckers, wind, excessive rain or impact by branches from overhanging trees, any of which can cause the loss of colonies, so a regular, weekly check (a walk by) is  important.
Uncle Drone

Auntie Bee answers a query about feeding fondant

Dear Auntie Bee
With all this warm weather my bees are continuing to fly and while hefting the hives they are beginning to feel lighter than they did one month ago when I’d finished feeding.
I have read on beekeeping blogs that beekeepers are putting fondant on their hives but I’ve also read that this can cause dysentery.
What would you advise?
Dear Beekeeper
Yes the warm weather this autumn has meant the bees were flying on many days in November and there is still activity in the middle of the day in December.  There is a little pollen coming into hives which may indicate the queens are laying and the bees will need to use stores to get energy for foraging flights to support the growing larvae.  This means that rather than being in a tight cluster and using very little stores, the bees may be using their winter stores at the same rate they might in early Spring when there is always a risk of them running out of food and starving.
I would certainly add a slab of fondant at this stage if you have any doubt about the stores in the hive.  Fondant can be purchased in bulk from bakers or from any supermarket in small amounts but be careful that it contains no preservatives or other additives. There are also recipes on line for making your own but avoid adding vinegar and you need a jam thermometer as the temperature is critical to get a soft set final product.
I recommend wrapping fondant in cling film and placing it on top of the crown board partially or nearly over the hole.  Make a small access hole in the clingfilm and then look every week by raising the roof, to see if the bees are taking it.  The film will prevent the fondant drying out and if the bees eat it it’s easy to add some more.  If the weather gets very cold for a prolonged period then the fondant can be moved to under the crown board making it easier for the cluster to access.
As always, every season is different and we have to be aware of and responsive to the bees’ needs.
Not long now to the new season
Auntie Bee

Uncle Drone advises on likely issues in a warm, dry, autumn

A beekeeper asks:
Dear Uncle Drone

With all the warm and dry weather this month, are my bees likely to delay sealing away the autumn feeds I’ve been giving them and instead raise more brood on it, perhaps to the extent of trying to swarm? I noticed a big patch of drone brood in one colony last week and wondered if I need to start looking for queen cells again, having seen others talking online about swarms being taken recently.

Uncle Drone replies:

You have two different issues here.  1) the unsealed stores and 2) drones and potential swarming.

For the first issue, unsealed stores.  This can be due to the lower night temperatures and reduced ventilation.  Remember the bees remove a vast amount of water from nectar by evaporation, this will always be better if it is warmer and although most colonies have open varroa floors the entrances are reduced because they are being fed and medicated at this time of year.  Another factor is that the bees are still bringing in more stores and need to put it somewhere.
For the drone issue.  Until the colonies get to believe winter is coming they will tolerate drones and even breed more.  The spring was not one of the best for getting virgin Queens mated and so this could be an indication that they expect to succeed their existing queen with a new one for the winter.  This can and does happen even when you have this year’s queen present.  Swarms at this time of year are not likely and casts that are seen could easily be mating queens being cared for on their return from the drone congregation site.
Uncle Drone

Uncle Drone and the hive move

A beekeeper asks:

Dear Uncle Drone
A swarm moved into an empty brood box in an inconvenient spot in my garden about six weeks ago and is now looking like a lovely colony. I need to move it about 10 yards so that the grandson doesn’t get involved. I’ve heard recently and seen on YouTube that its possible to move hives short distances (but further than the recommended 3 ft at a time) if you shut the bees in for 24 to 72 hours and put foliage in front when you open up. What do you think of this idea?

Uncle Drone replies:

While shutting the bees in for 24 to 72 hours may work OK I have never used it as a method because there is a danger (at this time of year) that the bees can panic and overheat. With autumn coming on there is less nectar, the bees will be collecting water to cool the colony, any break in these activities will unbalance the hive, potentially cause defecation in the hive and spread disease.

Remember that bees locate their home by remembering the vicinity when they first emerge from the hive, and try to make them repeat this.

My tried and tested method is as follows:
1. At dusk after all flying has ceased, close the hive to be moved using a wet sponge in the entrance.
2. Move the hive to the new site carefully, placing on a low hive stand (bricks or blocks) and completely removing all signs of where the hive stood (change the look of the old location).
3. Gather bracken, long grass, leaves, prunings etc, enough to spread over the front of the hive so that the bees cannot just fly straight out.
4. Pull out a corner of the wet sponge, to reveal about a quarter of the entrance.
5. Place all the assembled bits of bracken, leaves, long grass etc over the front of the hive that has just been exposed and fix to stop the wind blowing them away. Please note: you cannot have too much but you can have too little.
6. Check that enough debris has been applied to stop any bee flying straight out but must crawl out via the clutter you have just placed in the way.
7. Watch the bees in the morning and see them re-orientate to the new position as they emerge
8. After 2 days if the debris has not already blown away, remove the balance and the sponge from the entrance.
9. Job done.

Uncle Drone