Question 4: American websites and blogs speak of storing full supers in the barn over winter, well I don’t have a barn and I don’t have sufficient freezer space either! So what is your recommended best practise for storing supers with frames of comb over the winter: timing, location, pest treatment, repeat treatment, what if they have stores of honey, nectar, pollen in the comb etc and how long can they be stored like this ?
Answer from Auntie Bee: Firstly, regarding storing supers with honey residue (wet supers) or supers with honey still in them, I would not recommend this as the honey will take up moisture, its hygroscopic, and will then ferment and/or go mouldy.
I number all my supers as they go on the hives and then after extraction put them back on the same hive above the crown board. The bees will quickly clean them out and take the honey down into the brood box, about 48h is enough time.
Before Certan was introduced, we used PDB crystals ( paradichlorobenzene for anyone interested) a common moth killer which was banned as it was shown to cause cancer (carcinogenic). It may be that moth killers currently available (Mothballs, Lakeland products etc) may also work but I would have no idea regarding dose or effectiveness. If you were to give these a go you would certainly need to air the supers before reusing them next year as these products are insecticides and would not discriminate between moths and bees. They are however volatile and should evaporate very quickly.
Another suggestion is to use an insect zapping lamp. These work quite well and I use one in my bee house when I’m working in my shed in the autumn when I am troubled by wasps. The insects, bees, wasps, moths, everything are attracted to the UV light and then are humanely killed when they get close. These can be bought for around £25 from Amazon. Its worth noting that wax moth lay eggs within the seams in the woodwork of frames and boxes so its possible there are larvae lurking there already in which case the lamp would not be effective.
The only sure way to rid the boxes of wax moth is to use Acetic Acid vapour. There is a nice leaflet on the NBU website about fumigating comb (BeeBase, http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/index.cfm?pageid=167) so I’m not going to describe it here. It will kill all stages of wax moth and if a stack of supers is sealed with tape with a solid board underneath and a properly fitting roof on top they will remain moth and mouse free until spring. This treatment also kills Nosema spores, EFB and AFB spores.
Acetic acid is available from Thornes – collection only, £18.80 for 1 litre, and from Bee Equipment Ltd at Bridge although I note today 19th August they are out of stock. One litre will treat a fair number of boxes and should tide most of us all over until Certan is available again.
Just one last note, wax moth are much more likely to be attracted to brood comb than to super frames so if you are overwintering drawn brood comb, a precious commodity, I would recommend storing those in a freezer if at all possible.
Question 3: So I missed my weekly inspection by one day and yup, my biggest hive decided to swam. However, thanks to the fabulous teachers I have had I recaptured it. I pretended I had done an artificial swarm and put the new hive with some drawn and some new combs for them to sort out back to the location where they had come from having shifted the old hive to a few feet away.
So now I have a lot of new bees in a b box and no supers on them although there were two on the old hive. One q cell in old hive. All good there. Interestingly no classic swarm cell clusters, just two magnificent q cells in centre of a frame.
- Should I move supers from old to new hive? I think probably yes but pls confirm.
- Should I feed new hive? I think probably no especially if I move supers over with some food present.
- Any other useful pointers?
Answer from Auntie Bee: Well done, you’ve made the best of the situation and got it all right. If it was me I would put a feeder on the ‘swarm’ hive to help them draw out the remaining foundation and leave the brood hive as it is. As always there are many alternatives which would all work, but I think by doing that you will still have your honey crop and a reliable split on mostly newly drawn comb.
Question 2: I’m pretty sure one of my hives (luckily quite physically remote from the others) has got cbpv. The bees are very jittery on the comb although I haven’t seen any black greasy looking ones yet. I’ll have another look next week and may consider requeening as I know this can help. I know the virus can develop quite quickly so I appreciate I won’t have the luxury of taking a “wait and see” approach.
My question (which I can’t seem to find anything about online) is how long this virus can survive on equipment. ie. should the worst happen and the colony collapses, would the frames be safe and useable next year. I know typically viruses are quite short lived and can only survive for days at most outside the host but I’d feel much happier seeing something to back up my assumed position. Have you come across anything on this in your studies?
Answer from Auntie Bee: I had an outbreak of CBPV in one apiary a few years ago. The first thing I noticed was piles of dead bees at the entrance of every hive (6). At the time I suspected spray damage as well as disease and phoned the bee inspector to find out how to proceed. Looking at the bees I did see some bald black bees on the top bars, in some of the hives, but waited to see what Kay Wreford would say. Kay came about 10 days later, she was busy as CBPV is not notifiable so my call was low priority. By the time she came the bees had recovered and were bringing in honey with no symptoms of the virus, the dead bees in the grass under the entrance remained.
There was no clear cut answer for me, Kay recommended I clear up the bees and disinfect the soil which I did although as you say the virus would not persist for very long outside of a living cell or organism. She did say that had this been spray damage – the bees are in mixed orchards – there would have been piles of dead bees inside the hive as well as at the entrance so this was not the case.
So, unless your bees are particularly susceptible I think they should recover and I would just clean your hives as you normally would, by blow torching the boxes when empty. If you are recycling old frames I would boil these in soda.
Bees always do better and look better on new comb so I change my comb in the Autumn by doing a Baillie comb change when I feed and the empty drawn supers go back to the shed where I sterilise them with acetic acid vapour – see BeeBase guide for exact details.- before storing them for the winter. You could requeen but I don’t know anywhere where you can buy a CBPV resistant queen, I don’t think such a thing exists so personally I wouldn’t bother.